Extracts from The Constitution of India


We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign 
Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens :
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
In our consitutent assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and 
give to ourselves this constitution.


     Right to Equality 
     Right to Freedom 
     Right against Exploitation 
     Right to Freedom of Religion 
     Cultural and Educational Right 
     Right to Constitutonal Remedies 
     Saving of Certain Laws 

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES of every citizen of India:

     to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag 
        and the National Anthem; 
     to cherish and follow the noble ideas which inspired our national struggle for freedom; 
     to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; 
     to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; 
     to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India 
        transending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities;to renounce 
        practices deregatory to the dignity of women; 
     to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; 
     to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild 
        life, and to have compassion for living creatures; 
     to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of enquiry and reform; 
     to safegaurd public property and to abjure violence; 
     to strive towards excellenc in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that 
        the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. 


     State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people; 
     Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state; 
     Organisation of village panchayats; 
     Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases; 
     Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief; 
     Living wage, etc., for workers; 
     Uniform civil code for the citizens; 
     Provision of free and compulsary education for children; 
     Promotion of education and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled 
     Tribes and other weaker sections; 
     Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to 
     improve public health; 
     Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry; 
     Protection and improvment of environment and safegaurding of forests and wild life; 
     Protection of monuments and places oand objects of national importance; 
     Separation of judiciary from executive; 
     Promotion of international peace and security. 

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